Annex 3

Documentation of recent violence and rights abuses against  Indigenous BaTwa / BaMbuti communities in Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda

Nous avons perdu un autochtone de la Commune GITOBE, colline Ruremba, province KIRUNDO. Il a été torturé  par les habitants de RUTARE et après d’etre torturé, la police a tiré sur lui.

Il a rendu son ame sur place. Que la terre lui soit légère.

We lost an Indigenous man of the village of Gitobe, Ruremba neighborhood, Kirundo Province. He was tortured by the residents of Rutare, and after being tortured, the police shot him.

He has restored his soul. May the earth be light for him.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Read this and weep. The field reports that follow are just a scattering of the full human cost of the campaign against Indigenous Batwa and Bambuti people in the African Great Lakes region of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi and Rwanda.

Why is this taking place? Reasons include rampant prejudice against, and even dehumanization of, those who may be the most ancient people remaining on earth; and ongoing violent conflicts in the region among competing factions over the past 23 years following the Rwandan genocide. The larger context – which incentivizes the conflict – is a global extractive economy which pushes to acquire minerals, timber and agricultural land in one of the richest regions on earth. Those least able to compete – the Indigenous forest peoples – lose out.

But there is good news, too: civil society groups cutting across the various ethnic communities are now coming together to protect Indigenous interests. This regional movement stands up for human rights, cultural acceptance, an end to the conflict, and peaceful coexistence. When diverse people come together with shared commitment and intent, transformative change is possible.

The role of supporters in the international community is to support them.  Click here to learn how you can help. The antidote to weeping is helping!

Traveling to remote camps to learn status and needs of Indigenous communities

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FIELD REPORTS, IN REVERSE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

 

New reports will be added at the top as they come in. Most sources are not identified precisely, in order to protect them from the strong possibility of life-threatening repercussions. See footnotes by scrolling to end of report.

 

Report 2017.q

DATE(S):

02 June 2017

LOCATION(S):

Goma, Nord-Kivu

SUMMARY:

The Special Rapporteur for Genocide Prevention, Mr. Francois Grignon, visited the DRC from 1 to 5 June 2017. The schedule included a visit to the province of North Kivu and a meeting with the NGOs therein the MONUSCO Goma headquarters, Himalayas Room, on Friday 02 June 2017 at 14:45. Several organizations that work on protecting the survival and rights of Indigenous peoples in Nord-Kivu Province, DRC, were invited to the meeting.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

email from Kane Safiatou, BCNUDH/Goma17

DOCUMENTS:

none

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Report 2017.p

DATE(S):

04 May 2017

LOCATION(S):

Bisie, Territory of Walikale, Province of Nord-Kivu

SUMMARY:

Fifty civil society groups have signed an open letter to DRC’s President Joseph Kabila, asking him to arrange a dialogue between some 8,000 artisanal miners and the mining company MPC/AlphaMin at the Bisie mining site in the Walikale region of North Kivu Province. The company has signed a memorandum of understanding with a manipulated party of the community, which tramples on the rights of these miners. The fear is that if the miners are expelled, they will form an armed group, which would have unfortunate consequences.

AlphaMin also has a minerals exploration permit for the region, but has been exploring for minerals on a large scale without taking into account Indigenous peoples’ rights in the region. This is the basis of the dispute.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

copy of the open letter to DRC President Joseph Kabila, signed by 50 groups; plus additional background information from one of the involved parties

DOCUMENTS:

* copy of the 04 May 2017 open letter to DRC President Joseph Kabila, signed by 50 groups

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Report 2017.o

DATE(S):

27 April 2017 and subsequent days

LOCATION(S):

Taba-Congo, 22 km north of Kalemie

SUMMARY:

On 27 April 2017 in the area of Taba-Congo, 22 km north of Kalemie, a vagrant cow belonging to the Bafuliru8 ended up in a field belonging to Indigenous Batwa people. The cow was caught and killed by the Batwa. When the Bafuliru owner followed the cow’s track, he found that the cow was already butchered. The Batwa explained what happened, and the cause of the cow’s slaughter was settled by both parties – especially since both communities had come to share the meat. Everything seemed to be well regulated from there.

But surprisingly, when the cow’s owners arrived back in their village which they share with Bantu people (currently called “the Local Elements of Bantu Defense”) with meat from the cow they shared with the Batwa, the local Bantu defense elements got angry – even though everything had already been settled amicably between the Batwa and Bafuliru, and they attacked the Batwa. While the news made it appear that Batwa went to attack the Bantu, this is false; it is the Batwa that were attacked first.

In the course of the first attack, the Batwa managed to repel the Local Elements of Bantu Defense. But the Bantu did not accept this failure. On 29 April 2017, they organized a second attack in complicity with the FARDC6 soldiers in their communities, during which the Local Elements of Bantu Defense killed 8 Batwa. They then cut their bodies into pieces, taking the body parts back to their village of Taba-Congo (10 km from where this massacre was going on) and displaying them. All this took place before the eyes of the political-administrative authorities of the region, and nothing was done for the protection of the Indigenous people.

In mid-May, it was rumored that displaced Batwa people staying in the area of Misisi were about to be driven out by the pastoralist people in that region. However, our process of verification failed to confirm that information. There are currently no displaced Batwa people at Misisi. Actually, since April they had been in the locality of Force Bendera (50 km from city of Kalemie), and this is where the Bafuliru’s cow had entered the Batwa’s land. The Batwa had decided to follow the pastoralists and their herds towards Misisi, compounding an already tense situation. This is why the sages of the Bembe community of Misisi were put in the middle, to play the role of mediation between the two parties in conflict (Batwa/Bambuti and Bafuliru). The results of this mediation forced the Bafuliru pastoralists to concede two cows as an apology. After the two cows were handed over to the Bambuti, they returned to their previous area without causing any further hard feelings.

Note similarities with the account in report 2017.i15.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

details from a local civil society group with contacts in the region; later confirmed by various on-the-ground sources for MONUSCO5 and OCHA16 in the region

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.n

DATE(S):

meeting (by telephone): 23 April 2017

LOCATION(S):

Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

A primary advocate for the Batwa and Bambuti people in Tanganyika Province and the head of a local civil society group working towards peaceful coexistence met by phone to discuss upcoming initiatives to protect the survival and rights of Indigenous people in the region, given the dangerous conflict. All the trust and credibility the Indigenous community has thus far placed in local political and administrative authorities has resulted in failures and even manipulations to their disadvantage, so there is nothing to hope for politically in DR Congo. Indigenous community members are relieved to learn that the local organization, in conjunction with Initiative for Equality (IfE), will work to help them solve the psychological and moral crises within a framework of working towards sustainable peace.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

direct account from one of the meeting participants on the same day

DOCUMENTS:

none

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Report 2017.m

DATE(S):

meetings: 21 April 2017,  16 May 2017

LOCATION(S):

Goma, capital city of Nord-Kivu Province

SUMMARY:

On 21 April 2017, the local civil society group FDAPID (Foyer de Développement pour l’Autopromotion des Pygmées et Indigènes Défavorisés) was received for an audience with the Governor of North Kivu. This meeting was held within the December 2015 framework on monitoring of rights at work, as guaranteed by Article 36 of DRC’s Constitution. The group, some 20 people including Indigenous leaders, met with the Governor and advocated for the finalization of the draft provincial edict safeguarding and protecting the rights of Indigenous Bambuti and Batwa peoples in North Kivu, and the effective implementation of the recommendations resulting from the Universal Periodic Review of July 2014.  Firm promises made by the Governor included:

  • adopting the draft provincial edict and validating it in the next Council of Ministers, so that the texts can be sent to the Provincial Assembly for adoption by the Deputies and subsequently implemented;
  • granting work opportunities to members of the Indigenous community as soon as the opportunity presents itself, and granting scholarships to young Indigenous students;
  • initiating, in collaboration with FDAPID, income-generating activities for Indigenous women and youth

Follow-up meeting: on 16 May 2017 representatives of FDAPID discussed the draft edict extensively with the Provincial Minister of Justice. The Council of Ministers will be held on 19 May 2017, and the draft edict for Indigenous peoples is on the agenda.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

report taken from people in the group that met with the Governor; video and photos documenting the event were provided

DOCUMENTS:

* photo dated 21 April 2017

* video posted on facebook at: https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10212088542189890&id=1264924674

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.l

DATE(S):

14 March 2017

LOCATION(S):

Province du Nord-Kivu

SUMMARY:

In contrast to the electoral processes of 2006 and 2011, there has been a massive recruitment for voter registration among Indigenous peoples in the Province of North Kivu, where 40 local trainers were trained by the CENI10 with the support of the DGPA11 and the UNDEF12 under the facilitation of FDAPID13.  However, in the run-up to critically important local and national elections in DRC in 2017, local observers of the electoral process in North Kivu have documented some major challenges, especially affecting Indigenous people:

  • system overwhelmed due to popularity of registering to vote, with insufficient numbers of agents in the enrollment centers;
  • some people do not know their formal origins (territory/sector, village, etc.);
  • some people are not recognized by the system or database, despite the fact that they hold 2011 voter cards;
  • some enrollment centers are experiencing logistical problems (breakdown of the registration kits(?), out of stock of cards and fuels, etc.).

Several violations of human rights and the law have been recorded during this phase:

  • enlistment of children under 15 years, with the potential for unfortunate consequences in regard to the sexual exploitation of minor girls;
  • charging for tokens giving access to the enrollment office;
  • enrollment of persons who present false identity documents and foreigners for money;
  • some people are enrolled two or more times

The observers recommend:

  • that the CENI grant an additional delay of 2 weeks, enabling the enlistment of all citizens;
  • that the government assume its responsibility by mobilizing the fund for democratic elections in December 2017 in accordance with the agreement of December 31, 2016, as facilitated by the CENCO14

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

report by local observers of electoral process, with special emphasis on Indigenous rights

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.k                                                 

DATE(S):

account: 13 March 2017

LOCATION(S):

territories of Nyunzu  and  Kabalo; Province Tanganyika (Ex-Katanga)

SUMMARY:

According to an assessment that has just been carried out by field investigators in the Nyunzu and Kabalo territories of Tanganyika Province, more than 188 women have been identified as having suffered rape. All these victims have physical scars, and 60 suffer from acute trauma. Eighty percent of all these violated women are from the Indigenous Bambuti and Batwa communities. This is the case for two main reasons: first, according to the Bantu people, having sexual intercourse with a Bambuti or Batwa woman brings them the chance of wealth; and second, sex with a Bambuti or Batwa woman is an opportunity to acquire a great fetish force during confrontations against an enemy. This is why women in these communities have been raped on a large scale. Until now, none of these women have received any assistance either from the government or from humanitarian or UN agencies. It should be noted that 8 young people under the age of 18 from the Batwa and Bambuti community died after being raped, for lack of adequate support for this category of women. The investigating organization concludes that it is urgent to set up a “listening center” for psychosocial, medical and legal care.

In addition, more than 377 children and 289 women were identified with the signs of acute malnutrition including kwashiorkor. According to interviews carried out by the investigators in the Indigenous communities, 72 children and 44 women have already died of malnutrition; i.e.  starvation. There is an urgent need for in-depth awareness of malnutrition and a specialized center for caring for them and giving them a nutritious diet.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

a team of field investigators from a local civil society organization was sent out to conduct interviews and gather statistics

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.j

DATE(S):

account: 11 March 2017

LOCATION(S):

Burundi: town of Gitobe, neighborhood of Ruremba, Kirundo Province

SUMMARY:

Nous avons perdu un autochtone de la Commune GITOBE, colline Ruremba, province KIRUNDO. Il a été torturé  par les habitants de RUTARE et après d’etre torturé, la police a tiré sur lui. Il a rendu son ame sur place.

Que la terre lui soit légère.

Translation: We lost an Indigenous man of the village of Gitobe, Ruremba neighborhood, Kirundo Province. He was tortured by the residents of Rutare, and after being tortured, the police shot him. He has restored his soul.

May the earth be light for him.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

word-of-mouth account from local Indigenous community

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.i               

DATE(S):

initial event: July of 2016

report: covers continuing situation during February, March and April of 2017

LOCATION(S):

Manono, Kabalo, Yunzu, and Kakinga, Tanganyika Province (west of Kalemie); and Force Bendera, located on the border of southern Sud-Kivu Province (Fizi territory in Nyangi and Mapanda) and northern Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

A delegation from a civil society organization, including both Bantu and Bambuti members,  embarked on a mission to compile information on the conflict between Indigenous (Batwa and Bambuti) and Bantu (Bafulero8 and Banyamulenge9) people in the regions of Manono, Kabalo, Yunzu and Kakinga (Tanganyika Province) and Force Bendera (a worker housing site for the now-defunct Kiyimbi Hydro-power Station along the Kyimbi River on the border between Territory of Fizi, Sud-Kivu Province, and Tanganyika Province). The most recent conflict in this area began in July 2016 when a Bambuti hunter by the name of Kabiza from the village Kakinga (42 km from Kalemie) was summarily assassinated in the forest, after being hunted by the Bafulero herders on the grounds of having stolen cows from their pasture. Then, on 25 February 2017, the Bafulero organized raids and killed two Bambutis at Kabuzo, 50 km from Kalemie. Two other Bambutis narrowly escaped being killed. In return, the Bambutis killed a woman named Morina Zemire in the field using arrows, 50 km from Force Bendera. In turn, the Bafulero killed the traditional Chief of the Bambutis in this area, and five members of his family. Conflicts then intensified in almost all the Bambuti villages of Force Bendera, Yunzu and Kisengo.

According to people the investigators talked with, the Bambuti accused the Bafulero, Baluba and Banyamulenge communities of the following:

  • destroying the forest by the uncontrolled logging of trees, and causing the extinction of wild animals due to the seasonal migration of their cattle herds;
  • objectifying the Bambutis and subduing them into slavery in their own land;
  • destroying the environment of the forest on which their daily lives depend (fruit, honey, animal protein, fishing);
  • bringing the Banyamulenge to occupy the entire forest with their pastures; and
  • depriving them of all political, economic, social and cultural privileges.

The Bafulero, Baluba and the Banyamulenge people in turn accused the Bambutis of:

  • claiming complete ownership of the entire forest as an ancestral heritage, which they (the non-indigenous people) consider to be in bad faith;
  • embarrassing themselves in front of persons from the Bafulero, Baluba, or Banyamulenge communities;
  • stealing the Bafulero and Banyamulenge cattle to use as food in replacement for game that has become rare in the forest;
  • subscribing to animistic values and beliefs;
  • sowing jealousy and an inferiority complex;
  • lacking a spirit of initiative and entrepreneurship;
  • being underdeveloped intellectually; and
  • plundering property and setting fire to dwellings.

The consequences of this conflict have included killings, plundering of property and  cattle, burning of homes, and massive displacement of the population as follows:

Sites Estimates of Displaced Persons
1.      MISISI 560
2.      NYANGI 800
3.      NGALULA 600
4.      TULONGE 300
5.      LUBICHAKO 200
6.      MUSAKAHITE 350
7.      MAPENDA 400
8.      LAMBO KATENGA 360
9.      LUKOLO 260
10.  KALONDA KIBUYU 280
TOTAL 4010

The number of people killed in the vicinity of Force Bendera is estimated at 20, including 13 Bambutis and 7 Bantus; with more than 65 wounded. Isolated cases are not included in this number.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION: 

These data were gathered on a fact-finding mission carried out by a local civil society group using their own funds and a donated vehicle. They said: “Communicating with the Bambuti community was not easy, but we did it with the help of our members who are part of this community; the contact was made easier by those colleagues who were part of the mission. During our mission, we visited all the neighboring villages that hosted the displaced and we listed them as mentioned in the report. These displaced people are suffering from diarrhea, malaria, no food, others do not have clothes, kitchen utensils, etc. These displaced persons are easily spotted in these host villages because they lead a miserable life. The number of people hosted was given to us by the heads of the host villages whenever we arrived in a village.”

DOCUMENTS:

* a set of photos documenting the injuries that were witnessed by the investigators – please be warned before viewing that these photos are extremely brutal to the point of traumatizing; consider not viewing the photos unless you have a specific need to do so. Photos available only by request to info@initiativeforequality.org.

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.h                                

DATE(S):

letters: 20 February 2017 and 28 February 2017

account: 10 March 2017

LOCATION(S):

Quartier Mugunga, Avenue  Lushagala, Commune de Karisimbi, Province du Nord-Kivu

SUMMARY:

In a letter dated 20 February 2017 to the Provincial Minister of Land and Property Affairs, Nord Kivu Province, Mupepa Muhindo, a Bambuti leader representing his community, explains the situation of land grabs and the Mayor’s harmful decision that Indigenous people should cease all activities on these lands. (Note that this is the same man who was arrested on 31 January 2017 – see report 2017.f.) Non-indigenous individuals are attempting to take property away from the Indigenous people of the Mugunga neighborhood, town of Karisimbi, on the periphery of Goma, capitol of the Province of Nord-Kivu in DRC. The Mayor of the town is supporting the land grab. Mupepa Muhindo says that land conflicts make community relationships irritating to the point of forgetting the basic principles for a tranquil and peaceful society, and he calls for action on the problem by the Provincial Minister of Land and Property Affairs. In response, the Mayor of Karisimbi, Brigitte Mbayiki Semivumbi, sends a letter complaining in disparaging terms about the difficulties of living with Indigenous people (whom she calls “invaders”), and requests the Minister of the Interior, Nord-Kivu Province, to intervene in the situation.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

copy of letter from leader of the Indigenous community experiencing the land grabs; copy of letter from Mayor of Karisimbi requesting the Provincial Minister of the Interior, Nord-Kivu Province, to intervene in the situation

DOCUMENTS:

* letter from Mupepa Muhindo to Provincial Minister of Land and Property Affairs, Nord Kivu Province

* formal response from the Mayor of Karisimbi to Minister of the Interior, Nord-Kivu Province

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.g                                                                                        

DATE(S):

22 February 2017

LOCATION(S):

Kalemie, Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

News report (translated from French): “The Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of the Interior and Security, Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary arrived in Kalemie, capital of the Province of Tanganyika, on 22 February 2017  to open a forum of reconciliation between “Pygmies and Bantu” (Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples). These communities have been in conflict for years. The Ministry of the Interior estimates that some 500,000 people have been displaced in the affected territories, nearly 300,000 houses have been burnt down, and 400,000 schools have been destroyed over the past 4 years in Tanganyika Province. The Government of the Republic, through the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of the Interior and Security, is working to bring delegates of two communities to the table to resolve disagreements and restore a lasting peace.”

According to a civil society organization which attended this forum, it will not result in the desired outcomes because neither the leadership of the Indigenous communities (e.g. Nyumbaisha and Sept Spept, political leaders in Nyunzu and Manono) nor the Bantu Luba peoples of Nyunzu, Manono and Kabalo were invited to participate. Consequently, at the opening of this forum, Indigenous militias attacked villages between 25 km and 60 km from Kalemie to Nyunzu and Bendera. These attacks once again led to population displacement towards Kalemie.

NOTE: In May 2017, Minister of the Interior and Security, Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, the man who staged these ineffective negotiations, was sanctioned by the EU for human rights violations: see http://www.mediacongo.net/article-actualite-26873.html

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

News reports from Actualite and MediaCongo (national online news sources in DRC); first-hand account from civil society group present at the forum

https://actualite.cd/2017/02/22/shadary-tanganyika-reconcilier-bantu-pygmees/

http://www.mediacongo.net/article-actualite-26873.html

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.f

DATE(S):

events: arrest – 28 or 31 January; release – 02 February 2017

LOCATION(S):

community at issue is Quartier Mugunga, Avenue  Lushagala, Commune de Karisimbi, Province du Nord-Kivu;

jail is in Goma, Nord-Kivu

SUMMARY:

Mupepa Kakara Muhindo, a well-known Bambuti leader representing his community in a land grab case, was arrested on 28 January 2017 and held with a high ($700) bail. A local civil society group worked with attorneys to get him released, and issued a statement deploring the manipulation of the Congolese justice system by people who want the land, and for whom Mupepa represents an obstacle to their plans. Mupepa was subsequently released on 02 February 2017 when the court lowered his bail to $200.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

direct account from civil society organization involved in obtaining his release; their dates of arrest and release differ from dates on court document

DOCUMENTS:

* photo of Muhindo Mupepa in jail

* copy of court order releasing him

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.e

DATE(S):

massacre: 14 January 2017  (news report dates it as 13 January 2017)

accounts: multiple accounts from 17 January 2017 through June 2017

article: 16 January 2017

LOCATION(S):

Moba, Kalemie; Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

On the night of 14 January 2017, there was a nighttime attack by BaTabwa (Bantu people) against Indigenous people (Batwa and Bambuti) in the locality of Moba, Kalemie. More than 600 Indigenous people were slaughtered. During the attack, at least 1600 women and girls were raped by BaTabwa forces, and are being cared for using traditional medicines because the victims are in the zone of displacement so there are no health centers. More than 40 of the women and girls who were raped are at the point of death. Thus far, three of the girls, aged 13, 12 and 15 years old, have already died (on 20 and 21 January 2017).

Well-placed sources in the region say that the BaTabwa and BaLuba people are intent on exterminating the Batwa and Bambuti, with the complicity of the DRC national government. According to these sources, the DRC government is determined to prevent word of this massacre from becoming known internationally, while MONUSCO (the UN mission charged with ending the conflicts in DRC) is aware of the information but does nothing.

An inadequate news report, right after the 14 January 2017 massacre reported above, says that only 24 people died during the week in question. According to the report [translated into English]: “In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the conflict between the Pygmy and Bantu communities in the Tanganyika district is not diminishing in intensity. Over the last six months, clashes have erupted regularly between the members of these groups and the UN Joint Human Rights Office has already counted 158 dead, 250 wounded, thousands displaced and dozens of cases of women raped. In the last week alone, 24 people were killed, mostly women. Since that weekend, the Congolese armed forces have deployed reinforcements in the territory of Moba, a new epicenter of the crisis between the Pygmies of the Twa ethnic group and the Bantu populations. Last week was marked by a renewal of extreme violence. On 13 January, clashes took place in the Maseba area, 25 kilometers from the city of Moba. Four villages were partially or totally burned down and the population fled to Moba. In total, 24 people – four Bantus and twenty Pygmies – lost their lives in one week. They are mainly women. The UN Office for Human Rights is also concerned about the increase in violence suffered in recent months by women, including sexual violence. The clashes resulted in a further displacement of the population. In Moba, the Twa would have left the city. Local authorities are attempting to ease the explosive situation, but according to humanitarians, they are confronted with the mistrust of the two communities in conflict. In Kinshasa, the United Nations Mission is concerned. According to RFI sources, UN Deputy Special Representative David Gressly could visit the province mid-week.”

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

Informants checked this information thoroughly with multiple local sources, including provincial government officials, people on the ground who are prepared to accompany any serious investigation of the massacre, and an officer of FARDC who was on the ground and confirmed the massacre. There was also an inadequate news article: http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20170116-rdc-lourd-bilan-affrontements-entre-pygmees-bantous-tanganyika

DOCUMENTS:

* three photos dated April 2017, with (translated) comment: “Here are photos of how the PA (Pygmy) hut burned in NYUNZU territory. And here are the armed groups of the Batabwa peoples who hunted them with firearms.”  [NOTE: the Batabwa people referred to here are non-Indigenous Bantus, not Indigenous Batwa.]

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.d

DATE(S):

several weeks leading up to 13 January 2017

LOCATION(S):

Manono Territory; Kabalo Territory; 40 km from Nyunzu and Kabalo, ex-Katanga (i.e. Tanganyika) Province

SUMMARY:

In the weeks leading up to 13 January 2017, the BaLuba have killed many young Indigenous youth, including those working as babysitters, sheep herders and domestic workers (servants). The clashes took place 40 km from Nyunzu and Kabalo in the province of Katanga [i.e. Tanganyika]. The attacks are continuing between the Indigenous and BaLuba people in the two territories of Manono and Kabalo. There are many dead and wounded, and many houses burned. In the territory of Nyunzu, 40 km away, in the localities of Pweto and Kabwelo, there were massacres caused by Baluba against Indigenous youth. In this zone (Nyunzu and Kongolo) there is a lull at the moment, despite the past incidents. During the conflict, all Bambuti boys and girls under 18 were enlisted and became combatants. Indigenous leaders are calling for a demobilization program for these young people and their reintegration at all levels.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

Information came from on-the-ground statements by local investigators (in January), discussions with a top-level provincial government official, and from a meeting in May 2017 between officials of the FARDC (DRC’s national armed forces) and the Batwa people, co-hosted by MONUSCO and a local civil society group;

DOCUMENTS:

* photos of injured people: “Deux cas de blessés de Bambuti, pendant les affrontement, a manono le 24 decembre 2016, voici les Bambuti avec leurs armes traditionnelles (des flèches).” [Two photos of injured Batwa showing severity & types of injuries, and one photo of Bambutis with bows & arrows]

* video of Bambuti man people speaking about the situation: “Merci de trouve la declaration des peuples autochtones Bambuti, pendant les affrontements dans le territoire de nyunzu. Il parle en langue Swahiri. Il dit le problème c’est la communauté Baluba qui sont a la chasse de leur communauté.” [Please find the declaration of the Indigenous Bambuti peoples, during the clashes in the territory of Nyunzu. He speaks in Swahili. He says the problem is the Baluba community who are hunting their [Bambuti] community.]

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.c

DATE(S):

event: approximately 30-31 January 2017

LOCATION(S):

Territory of Rutshuru, about 70 km from Goma, Nord-Kivu Province

SUMMARY:

On 30 January 2017 an Indigenous Batwa man named Barigira Rugayu, of Burai (Territory of Rutshuru, about 70 km from Goma in the Province of North Kivu) died while in prison. According to sources close to the deceased, his death was caused by torture in the Rutshuru District Prison by a police officer or member of the LNI (Légion Nationale d’Intervention). When Colonel Kilundu of the prison was contacted by telephone, he justified the death as food poisoning, and said that Barigira died in the hospital. However, the family of the victim had been searching for him throughout the prisons for more than 48 hours, and it was not until Tuesday, 31 January that the body was found at the morgue of Rutshuru General Hospital. Family members and supporters have demanded an autopsy to document the cause of death.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

accounts by family members contrasted with the official account from the prison colonel

http://minorityvoices.org/news.php/en/5213/

DOCUMENTS

* audio clip of telephone conversation between civil society advocate and Colonel Kilundu of the prison

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.b

DATE(S):

meeting: 24 January 2017 (describes ongoing situation)

LOCATION(S):

Burundi: the most affected provinces are: Bubanza, Makamba, Kirundo, Muyinga, Karusi, Ruyigi, Bururi, Bujumbura Rural, Mwaro, and parts of Cibitoke, Kayanza and Ngazi.

SUMMARY:

After the government’s declaration that Burundi is in phase four of a famine, the Batwa people are warning of starvation, especially in Batwa families. Thus far, 25 children, 11 men and 5 women have died in the famine in a single northern region. A hundred children are suffering from Kwashiorkor (a disease of food inadequacy). The most affected provinces are: Bubanza, Makamba, Kirundo, Muyinga, Karusi, Ruyigi, Bururi, Bujumbura Rural, Mwaro, parts of Cibitoke, Kayanza and Ngazi. If nothing is done, this famine will cause major harm to the Batwa of Burundi.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

verbal reports at a meeting of Batwa people from 5 regions across Burundi, held on 24 January 2017

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2017.a                         

DATE(S):

news report: 08 January 2017

LOCATION(S):

region of Katanga (i.e. Tanganyika Province)

SUMMARY:

RTNC radio is reporting as of 08 January 2017 that the national government has invited the “sages” of the Katanga region (i.e.  Tanganyika Province) to discuss how to resolve the conflicts between the Bantu and the Indigenous people in this region. It appears that the Bambuti will not be involved; only “sages” (men of stature in the government).

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

account of news report on RTNC Radio7

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.i

DATE(S):

event: 20 December 2016

account: 21 December 2016 and 07 January 2017

LOCATION(S):

Manono Territory, ex-Katanga (i.e. Tanganyika) Province

SUMMARY:

On 21 December 2016 it was reported that the previous day (20 December 2016), around 4 am, there were clashes between Batwa and the Congolese National Police in conjunction with the FARDC (national armed forces), in the province of ex-Katanga (Tanganyika), Territory of Manono. There were several people dead and wounded according to the administrator of this territory. Many people fled the clashes to other places and may still be safe. According to other sources, including hospitals, there were 5 dead and 98 wounded; this is the provisional casualty list from this confrontation. The Indigenous Batwa people have fled far from the communities surrounding the center of Manono territory, taking their wounded who are being cared for by traditional medicines.

On 07 January 2017 (two and a half weeks later), the provincial government of Katanga now reports over Radio Okapi that there were 181 people wounded for the two communities in the conflict on 20 December 2016, just in the territory of Manono alone. The provincial government says it will take care of all the wounded.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

The report was compiled from a variety of sources including the administrator of Manono Territory, local hospitals, individuals in touch with the affected Batwa communities, and Radio Okapi (the UN’s news source).

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.h

DATE(S):

November and December of 2016

LOCATION(S):

Nyunzu, Kabalo, Manono, and Kongolo in Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

Indigenous peoples are currently the victims of conflicts of all kinds in DR Congo. Such is the case of the Province of Tanganyika (ex-Katanga), where the conflict between the Bantus (Luba) and the Indigenous Batwa and Bambuti has caused several cases of human rights violations (killings, burned houses, forced population displacement, etc.). This conflict is more pronounced in the four territories of Nyunzu, Kabalo, Manono and Kongolo. The casualties estimated for November and December 2016 in both camps (Indigenous/Bambuti and Bantu/Luba), according to some sources, stand at 449 dead, 273 seriously wounded, 3120 homes burned and thousands of displaced people.

DATA PROVIDED    [NOTE: these numbers were provided via a photo of a hand-written table]

NO TERRITORIES DEATHS INJURED ETHNICITY TIME PERIOD OBSERVATION
1 Nyunzu 162 73 Bambuti Nov and Dec 2016 for the Bambuti people, these are estimated numbers
2 Kabalo 97 103
3 Manono 148 69
4 Kongolo 42 28
TERRITORIES BATWA  HOUSES BURNED – ESTIMATES
Nyunzu 170
Kabalo 150
Manono 2500
Kongolo 300


SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

The numbers of casualties were provided by individuals conducting on-the-ground surveys in the region, to be given to MONUSCO; data were “furnished by Pygmy leaders

DOCUMENTS:

* photo of ground intel provided to MONUSCO; note says “Data furnished by Pygmy Leaders”

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.g

DATE(S):

two events: 21 and 23 November 2016

article: 24 November 2016

LOCATION(S):

in the area of Muswaki, along the rail line 70 km west of Kalemie, Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

Approximately 30 people, including several children, were killed in a new attack attributed to “indigenous-pygmy populations” in the Muswaki area west of Kalemie (Tanganyika Province). The massacre was confirmed by several residents fleeing the troubled area. This report is likely to be revised upwards, say the survivors, who say several other injured victims have fled into the bush with poisoned arrows in their bodies. MONUSCO5 spokesman Félix Prosper Basse, said the situation is “more than worrying” because of the conflict between the non-Indigenous Luba and the Indigenous Batwa communities in the triangle formed by locations  Mitwaba – Manono – Pweto. He praised “all the efforts made by the provincial authorities, local authorities, customary and religious authorities, but also MONUSCO, to carry out actions that allow peaceful coexistence between these two communities, which for a long time have been making war. ” The Batwa – Luba conflict also resulted in another attack in Nyemba on 21 November against a UNHCR – MONUSCO convoy. During this attack, attributed to the Luba armed elements, two Benin blue helmets [UN troops from Benin] were wounded by arrows.

[NOTE: to understand this attack in context, see report 2016.h from this same region, showing the deaths of more than 400 Indigenous people during the months of November and December 2016; see also report 2016.i reporting government involvement in some of the killings.]

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

News report based on interviews with multiple involved parties and quoting a MONUSCO spokesperson; published by Radio Okapi, the UN’s news station in DRC

http://www.radiookapi.net/2016/11/24/actualite/securite/rdc-30-morts-dans-une-nouvelle-attaque-attribuee-aux-pygmees-muswaki

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.f

DATE(S):

20 November 2016

LOCATION(S):

in the area of Muswaki, 70 km west of Kalemie, Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

The Pygmies killed three people and wounded four others in an attack on Sunday (November 20th) in Muswaki, 70 km west of Kalemie, Tanganyika Province. The Indigenous militia also burned houses in this part of the country. The attack by the militia led to the displacement of inhabitants in the area, who took advantage of the passage of the SNCC train from Kindu to Kalemie. “The arrows used by this militia are for the most part poisoned. Any tardy medical intervention is often fatal for the victims,” according to doctor Junior Tchimena at the hospital in Kabalo.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

News report based on interviews with several witnesses and a doctor at the nearby hospital; published by Radio Okapi, the UN’s news station in DRC

http://www.radiookapi.net/2016/11/20/actualite/securite/tanganyika-3-morts-dans-une-attaque-des-pygmees-muswaki

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.d

DATE(S):

Open Letter: dated 10 October 2016

LOCATION(S):

Buabo, in Buabo Groupement, Territory of Masisi, Nord-Kivu Province

SUMMARY:

An Open Letter was sent to the Governor of North Kivu Province in Goma, requesting that he ask the Court of Peace of Masisi to move urgently on the issue of land grabs in Buabo, which has recently resulted in death threats against some Indigenous leaders of Buabo following their activism on this matter. The Governor is also asked to avoid taking advantage of the extreme vulnerability of Indigenous peoples or infringing on their fundamental rights by pronouncing judgments based on the demands of the most well-to-do and influential members of the community.

The background to this request is that, beginning in 25 November 2014 ,  Indigenous peoples of Buabo brought the land conflict to the mediators of a local civil society group and the local Property Sub-Coordination Agency in Masisi, which organized several mediation sessions. Recommendations and the information-gathering process resulting from these sessions were never implemented, which led the Ombudsmen to refer this land dispute to the Masisi Court of Peace on 28 September 2015. Then, on 03 October 2016, two Indigenous leaders of the attempt to obtain justice (Munubo Muhima Furaha and Tamira Muyumbu Bayibika) were sentenced to 6 months SPP and fined in an amount they cannot pay.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

This Open Letter was prepared by people who have been closely involved in the legal and social dimensions of this issue since it began in 2014, and was signed by 19 people representing Batwa/Bambuti communities across Sud-Kivu and Nord-Kivu.

DOCUMENTS:

* copy of Open Letter with a photo of all the signatures

* jpg of the court document, notice of hearing (appeal)

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.c

DATE(S):

data collected: early September 2016

report: 20 September 2016

LOCATION(S):

Territories of Yuzu, Kabalo, Manono and Kongolo, Tanganyika Province (all west of Kalemie)

SUMMARY:

In early September 2016, a local NGO sent a staff person to investigate clashes between the Indigenous Bambuti minority and the Bantu Bahemba majority in the territories of Yunzu, Kabalo, Manono and Kongolo, in Tanganyika Province west of Kalemie. The accounting of casualties is estimated at:

 

Territories Deaths Displaced
Yunzu 20 130
Kabalo 20 150
Manono 25 108
Kongolo 13 40
TOTAL 78 428

 

The 428 displaced persons, mostly Bantu (Balubas), are now living outside, their houses having been burned. The weapons used during these clashes include arrows, spears, machetes, and tree branches.  The reason given for these confrontations is that the Bambuti consider themselves threatened, despised and even objectified by their Bantu neighbors. Moreover, the majority of their forests are now controlled by the Bantu, including mining lands. The Bambuti live from their forests by gathering fruit, honey and fish and hunting game, so when they are deprived of the forest, their lives are essentially over. Hence, they are determined to continue their way of life, although often oppressed by the Bantu through confrontations.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

information was gathered and report prepared by local civil society individuals who undertook an on-the-ground investigation in the conflict zone

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.b

DATE(S):

event: 02 September 2016

article: 03 September 2016

LOCATION(S):

Cotanga, Territory of Nyunzu, Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

Clashes between members of the Batwa and Bantu communities have taken place over the past three days in the territory of Nyunzu (Tanganyika Province). Some sources report several deaths but this record has not been confirmed by any official source. The treasurer of an NGO in Mukwaka, 25 km from Nyunzu, said a man was killed by an Indigenous militia on Friday (September 2). Within the Indigenous community, there are two deaths registered since the beginning of these clashes.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

News report based on interviews with multiple involved parties; published by Radio Okapi4

http://www.radiookapi.net/2016/09/03/actualite/securite/tanganyika-reprise-des-affrontements-entre-pygmees-et-bantous

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2016.a

DATE(S):

26 March 2016

LOCATION(S):

village Makabya; Nyabiondo, Territory of Masisi, Nord-Kivu Province

SUMMARY:

On 26 March 2016, a 25-year-old Indigenous man named Matungulu Maroyi, from the Makabya camp, died in Nyabiondo, leaving behind a wife and two children. The man died immediately after being tortured by Olimo Bienvenu, a member of the FARDC6, 813th Regiment. Sources indicate that the victim refused to carry the soldier’s parcel, which was the reason given for the torture that led to his death. Later, in March of 2017, the Military Tribunal finally moved forward to subpoena information from the hospital on the nature of the victim’s injuries, in pursuit of a case against the perpetrator.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

This report was provided by a local civil society organization which is assisting the deceased man’s family in pursuing charges against the perpetrator. See copy of document from the Military Court (“Requisition for Interpreters, translators, experts and doctors”) dated 01 March 2017. This is a formal legal document from the military court of Nord-Kivu, requesting help from a doctor at the hospital in the case of a Batwa man who died of torture a year previous (finally following up).

DOCUMENTS:

* official document from the Military Court (“Requisition for Interpreters, translators, experts and doctors”) dated 01 March 2017

________________________________________________________________

Report 2015-17.a

DATE(S):

abuses from 2015 through present

hearings on 11-24 April 2017

LOCATION(S):

events: Tulabihao, village of Mafuo, groupement of Kalima, Chefferie of Buhavu, Territory of Kalehe, Sud-Kivu Province

court case: Bunyakiri, Territory of Kalehe, Sud-Kivu Province

SUMMARY:

On 11 through 24 April 2017, the Kalehe Peace Tribunal (a formal, recognized court) in Bunyakiri took up the case of a small group of Indigenous families whose ancestral lands were being forcibly taken by a non-Indigenous man. Since it is a large primary forest, the neighbor who is attempting to retain the land has begun to cut trees for the sale of timber. This land grab took place in the village of Tulabihao, village of Mafuo, groupement of Kalima, Chefferie of Buhavu, Territory of Kalehe, Sud-Kivu Province. The Indigenous litigants are being given assistance in the court case by two civil society organizations working in the region: Réseau Congolais des Forestiers de la RDC (RCF-RD Congo) and Action pour la Protection de la Nature (APRONA).

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

report was submitted by persons from one of the civil society organizations that assisted the Indigenous persons in the case

DOCUMENTS

* three photos taken at the Kalehe Peace Tribunal during the case

________________________________________________________________

Report 2015.c

DATE(S):

event: 24 September 2015

report: 25 September 2015

LOCATION(S):

Mukebo, 160 km from Manono, in Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

A committee for the resolution of conflict between Indigenous (Batwa) and Bantu communities was set up on Thursday 24 September in Mukebo, 160 km from Manono. It is made up of 14 members chosen by the two communities in conflict to revive intercommunity dialogue. According to its president, this commission composed of 7 Batwa and 7 Bantu will be responsible for promoting dialogue in order to facilitate reconciliation and peaceful coexistence. The commission is being set up while the populations who have fled the atrocities relating to this conflict are demanding more security in their villages of origin. The implementation of this dispute resolution committee was facilitated by MONUSCO (a part of the UN).

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

News report published by Radio Okapi, MONUSCO’s news station in DRC; the UN’s MONUSCO is the agency helping to set up this committee

http://www.radiookapi.net/2015/09/25/actualite/societe/tanganyika-installation-dune-commission-de-resolution-du-conflit-entre

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2015.a

DATE(S):

events: from January through September of 2015; in particular, in June 2015

peace committee set up: 19 September 2015

article: 22 September 2015

LOCATION(S):

(1) village of Kitutwa in the territory of Manono; (2) territory of Nyunzu, in northern Katanga Province (now known as Tanganyika Province)

SUMMARY:

The last clash between Bantu and Batwa last June [i.e. June 2015] killed four people in the village of Kitutwa in the territory of Manono. This attack was said to have occurred in retaliation for the incursions of the Indigenous peoples, perpetrated in the Bantu villages surrounding the Bakongolo chiefdom. In the neighboring territory of Nyunzu, still in northern Katanga [i.e. now in Tanganyika Province], the inter-communal conflict between Batwa and Bantu has already killed about two hundred people, some 60 women raped and 113 villages burned since January 2015. This article also reports on the new peace committee set up (see Report 2015.c).

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

News report published by Radio Okapi, MONUSCO’s news station in DRC

http://www.radiookapi.net/2015/09/22/actualite/societe/tanganyika-installation-des-comites-de-paix-entre-bantous-et-pygmees

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________ 

Report 2014-17.a

DATE(S):

2014 – present

LOCATION(S):

Territoire de Beni, Nord-Kivu  Province

SUMMARY:

Bambuti in the territory of Beni, Nord-Kivu Province, have been subjected to grave human rights violations by Ugandan rebels (the ADF Nalu), who have been engaged in killings, rapes, kidnapping, extortion, sexual slavery, and burning of houses from 2014 through to the present.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

summary statement from civil society project coordinator who has investigated incidents and advocated for Indigenous people’s well-being for many years, in and around Beni

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2014.a

DATE(S):

events: June 2014

account: 05 April 2017

LOCATION(S):

Kinshasa (national legislation)

SUMMARY:

In June of 2014, several civil society organizations participated in a review (held in Kinshasa) of proposed legislation concerning Indigenous peoples in DRC. The proposed law was listed on the calendar of last year’s (2016) national parliamentary session but was not discussed. It should be taken up this year (2017).

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

information from participant in the process

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

Report 2013-16.a

DATE(S):

events: 2013 through 2015; particularly 30 April 2015 and 12 August 2015;  28 June 2016

articles: 13 August 2015; 29 June 2016

LOCATION(S):

events: territories of Kalemie, Nyunzu and Manono; Tanganyika1 Province

court case: Lubumbashi, Tanganyika Province

SUMMARY:

The Lubumbashi Court of Appeals has opened a case against 34 individuals accused of “crimes of genocide” in the inter-communal conflict between Bantus2 and Pygmies3 since 2013 in the new province of Tanganyika (ex-Katanga). The defendants, who include both Indigenous Batwa and Bantu Luba individuals, are accused of murder, rape, house burning and “crimes of genocide”. This is the first time a court has raised charges of genocide, which is normally reserved for the International Criminal Court (ICC). According to a press release from the NGO Human Rights Watch (HRW), published on 11 August, “The UN has reported [since the beginning of the conflict in 2013] hundreds of civilians killed, dozens of razed villages, and tens of thousands displaced from their native village”. The HRW statement also denounces events of 30 April 2015, when Luba fighters attacked a camp for displaced people [presumably Indigenous] outside the city of Nyunzu.

From later article (29 June 2016): The trial of the thirty-two Pygmies and Bantus prosecuted by the Congolese justice system for the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity resumed Tuesday June 28 in the prison of the Kasapa in Lubumbashi. They are accused of crimes allegedly committed during the conflict between the two communities in the territories of Kabalo and Manono (Tanganyika Province) since 2013. For the first time since the opening of the trial in 2014, three victims participated in the hearing, including a “chief of Pygmy village”, a young Luba girl and a woman who had been raped.

SOURCES AND VERIFICATION:

Information provided by a news article published by Radio Okapi4, based on UN reports and on a statement issued by Human Rights Watch (which quotes MONUSCO5)

http://www.radiookapi.net/actualite/2015/08/13/conflit-luba-twa-au-tanganyika-ouverture-dun-proces-contre-34-personnes

http://www.radiookapi.net/2016/06/29/actualite/justice/lubumbashi-reprise-du-proces-de-32-pygmees-et-bantous-accuses-de

DOCUMENTS:

none

________________________________________________________________

FOOTNOTES                                                                                     

1 Tanganyika Province is a part of the old Katanga Province, and is often referred to as ex-Katanga Province; the name change took place in 2015.

2Bantu” refers to a broad grouping of African ethnic groups that migrated into the central African region over the centuries; it does not include the Indigenous Batwa and Bambuti people.

3 Pygmy” is an old term still in frequent use in the DRC to refer to the Indigenous groups considered to be the original inhabitants of this region of Africa, including the Batwa, Bambuti, Efe, Aka, and related ethnic groups. The term “Pygmy” is considered by some to be pejorative, while others are trying to reclaim the term. Activists in French-speaking parts of DRC generally refer to them as Peuples Autochtones (Aboriginal Peoples), or simply PA. We generally refer to these people as Batwa or Bambuti, or “Indigenous”. However, the term “Pygmy” is sometimes used when quoting from an article or report which used the word.

4 Radio Okapi is a UN-sponsored news source, affiliated with MONUSCO in DRC

5 MONUSCO is Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), a United Nations peacekeeping force in the DRC

6 FARDC is Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo, DRC’s armed forces

7 RTNC is  Radio-Télévision Nationale Congolaise

8 Bafulero and Bafuliru are two different spellings for the same ethnic group

9 The  Banyamulenge people have themselves been the subject of recent massacres (unrelated to Indigenous people) which they call “genocide” – raising the question of how trauma is experienced, remembered, and reenacted http://www.gatumbasurvivors.org/massacre/

10  CENI is Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante

11  DGPA is Dynamique des Groupes des Peuples Autochtones, a national network in DRC that focuses on promoting the voices and rights of indigenous peoples

12  UNDEF is United Nations Democracy Fund

13  FDAPID is Foyer de Développement pour l’Autopromotion des Pygmées et Indigènes Défavorisés, a local civil society group

14 CENCO is National Episcopal Conference of Congo, which brokered a deal to see national elections held before the end of 2017

15 The narrative of a cow being killed by Indigenous people, thus precipitating a crisis with Bantu or other non-Indigenous herders,  is a common one. This situation is predictable, given the current dire circumstances of the Batwa and Bambuti, who formerly were able to depend on hunting in their traditional forest lands, contrasted with the Bantu herders’ practice of moving their cattle from place to place during the year.

16 OCHA is the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

17 BCNUDH is Bureau Conjoint des Nations Unies aux Droits de l’Homme (Joint United Nations Office on Human Rights), with headquarters in Kinshasa, DRC

________________________________________________________________